Answers to the most common legal questions surrounding novel coronavirus from personal injury attorneys, law students and plaintiffs

The legal world can be daunting for most folks who aren't lawyers and legal specialists in the best of times — let alone when unprecedented and rare circumstances arise that create an entirely unique assortment of questions and concerns. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is one such circumstance.

As officials continue to control the outbreak and people everywhere adjust to the "new normal," we at Enjuris are focused, as always, on providing informative and actionable answers to your most pressing legal questions.

We've developed this resource page to provide real answers for plaintiffs about the coronavirus and how it relates to their personal injury cases — including premises liability, workers' compensation, medical malpractice and wrongful death — as well as insights for lawyers and law students.

In such difficult and trying times, Enjuris is proud to partner with some of the top attorneys in the nation to give clear and concise answers to common legal questions about the coronavirus and how it might impact your injury or accident claim. We must all do what we can to help each other during this ongoing crisis, and we at Enjuris will continue to do our part.

FAQ for plaintiffs

  Personal injury

How will coronavirus impact my personal injury case?

COVID-19 is likely to give rise to a number of personal injury cases. For example, cruise ship passengers who contracted or were exposed to the novel coronavirus might sue the cruise line for its failure to enforce passenger contact restrictions or establish ship cleaning protocols.

But what if your personal injury lawsuit has nothing to do with the coronavirus?

The coronavirus might still impact your personal injury claim in several important ways.

First, legal proceedings that normally take place face-to-face might now be done remotely. Some states have already begun to issue orders requiring parties to participate in depositions, hearings, and other legal proceedings via telephone or video conference. In some cases, proceedings (particularly jury trials) may be postponed altogether.

Second, insurance companies are likely to become overwhelmed. As a result, your personal injury case might proceed more slowly than normal. Fortunately, most insurance adjusters already work remotely and therefore you or your attorney should be able to communicate with the insurance company as normal.

Third, like insurance companies, medical professionals are likely to become overwhelmed. Some health systems are already canceling non-essential surgeries. What's more, appointments might become harder to schedule. If you visit regularly, then you know how important it is to receive medical care following an accident. If you're having trouble getting seen by a doctor, be sure to document your attempts so the defendant can't later claim that you didn't seek medical attention.

Finally, if you haven't filed your personal injury lawsuit yet, you should know that the statute of limitations might be extended. However, this will likely vary from state to state. Don't assume that your state will increase the time you have to file a lawsuit. You should meet with an attorney as soon as possible.

Each state — and in some cases, municipality — is handling the coronavirus differently. Some areas have a higher concentration of cases, and some state leaders and mayors of large cities are taking a stricter approach than others. Courts might be closed, court staff might be working remotely, and other processes could be temporarily shut down or working at minimum capacity.

If you have a case pending, you should contact your lawyer to find out whether your filings or court dates are continuing on schedule. And, be patient. Your lawyer is likely fielding many calls just like yours and might be working with minimal staff in the office and limited access to resources.

If you're handling a matter in small claims court, call the local judiciary to find out whether cases are continuing to be heard and filed.

What should I do if I have an ongoing personal injury case?

The novel coronavirus has disrupted many aspects of everyday life, and the legal world is no different.

As concerns about the spread of the virus have escalated, many federal and state courts have closed or limited access, transitioned to remote operations, extended filing deadlines, and postponed trials and other less-urgent matters.

Law firms and attorneys have been impacted as well. Many personal injury firms have had to let go of staff and transition to working remotely.

Despite these significant disruptions, you must remember that your personal injury case is important. If you've been injured in an accident, you may be in severe pain, unable to work, and facing mounting medical bills. You may be relying on the resolution of your case to move on with your life. For these reasons, your personal injury case shouldn't be put on hold for the coronavirus or anything else.

So what can you do to make sure your case continues toward a satisfactory resolution in the middle of a pandemic?

The first thing you can do is take a hard look at the law firm currently representing you and determine whether it's capable of handling your case right now. Not all law firms are equipped to operate remotely without missing a beat. On top of that, many law firms have had to fire essential support staff. Is your law firm paperless or capable of becoming paperless? Is the team that was serving you before the outbreak still in place? Call your attorney and ask them how they're set up to handle your case during the coronavirus pandemic.

The second thing you can do is check-in frequently with your attorney. The wheels of justice turn slowly even in the best of times, so you must make sure your attorney continues to be aggressive and your case doesn't fall through the cracks. One of the potential benefits of the pandemic is an increase in settlements in cases that would normally drag on. Check-in with your attorney from time to time and ask what they're doing at that moment to move your case forward and whether the pandemic has changed their strategy.

Lastly, consider switching law firms. If your law firm is not equipped to handle your case remotely or you don't feel like your case is being treated as a priority, this is a good time to explore other options. When you switch attorneys, your old attorney must turn over your case file to your new attorney. This means that all the work completed by your old attorney isn't lost and your new attorney doesn't have to start from scratch. When meeting with your new attorney, be sure to politely explain the problems you had with your old attorney and ask the new attorney how they'll make sure those problems won't be repeated.

Can coronavirus victims sue for injuries?

Generally speaking, a person can sue for the negligent transmission of a contagious or infectious disease. Depending on the circumstances, the person may sue the individual from whom they contracted the disease or the entity that failed to prevent the spread of the disease.

As is the case with any negligence lawsuit, the plaintiff will need to prove that:

  • The defendant owed the plaintiff a duty,
  • The defendant breached the duty, and
  • The defendant's breach was the proximate cause of the plaintiff's injuries.

In 2006, the California Supreme Court found a husband liable for infecting his wife with HIV. The court held that liability for the negligent transmission of a contagious or infectious disease extends to situations where the defendant, "under the totality of the circumstances, had reason to know of the infection."

Given the massive media exposure, it probably won't be difficult to prove that a person had reason to know they were infected with the novel coronavirus (assuming the person experienced at least some symptoms). What's more, given the federal and state recommendation to self-quarantine if you experience symptoms, it probably won't be difficult to prove that a person breached their duty to exercise reasonable care by failing to self-quarantine.

The biggest challenge for a plaintiff in a negligent transmission case will be proving causation. To put it simply, how can the plaintiff prove that the defendant infected them and not some other person who they might've been in contact with?

Even if a plaintiff is able to prove duty, breach and causation, they will still need to prove that they suffered damages. In the case of a coronavirus infection, damages might include medical expenses, lost wages, and even pain and suffering.

Though the above discussion focuses on suing an infected person for the negligent transmission of the coronavirus, the same points apply to suing an entity for failing to prevent the spread of the disease.

Let's look at an example:

A cruise line discovers that one of its crew members is exhibiting symptoms of the coronavirus. Nevertheless, the cruise line allows the employee to continue serving passengers.

The cruise line owes a duty to its passengers to, at minimum, exercise reasonable care to protect the passengers from harm. The cruise line almost certainly breached this duty when it allowed the infected crew member to continue serving food and having contact with passengers. The challenge for the plaintiff in this hypothetical will be proving causation.

To put it another way: How will the plaintiff prove that they contracted the disease from the crew member and not some other passenger?

Can I sue if someone infected me with coronavirus, or failed to tell me they had coronavirus?

Personal injury law is based on negligence.

Each person has a duty to others to avoid causing harm, whether there's an existing relationship or not. For example, a driver must operate a vehicle safely and cautiously to meet their duty to other road users including motorists, pedestrians, and bicyclists.

A shop owner has a duty to ensure there are no hazardous conditions that might cause a foreseeable injury to a customer.

An employer has a duty to provide a safe and hazard-free workplace for employees and clients.

You can't sue someone for infecting you with the coronavirus unless your infection is the result of their negligence.

The CDC reports that many people with the virus do not show symptoms. In addition, people can be contagious and spread the disease before they begin to show symptoms. Part of what makes the disease so dangerous is that it's highly contagious by people who don't know they're carrying the virus.

However, if someone has tested positive for COVID-19 or is presumptively diagnosed (believed to have the disease) and fails to adhere to the CDC requirements for isolation and quarantine, then they might be considered negligent if they spread the disease to others.

Quarantines are not just for patients who are diagnosed with the disease. The CDC recommends a 14-day quarantine for any person who has been in close contact with someone who has tested positive. If a person violates a mandate to quarantine that's issued by their local health department, they might be considered negligent if they spread the illness to others.

Along those same lines, if a person begins to experience symptoms consistent with COVID-19 (fever, cough, other flu-like symptoms) and they fail to consult a medical provider and continue to be out in public or in contact with other people when they know they have these symptoms, that could also be negligent.

But negligence, alone, doesn't give rise to a personal injury claim.

In order to file a claim, a person's negligence must have caused another person to be diagnosed with the illness. A person who spreads the illness isn't negligent unless they had symptoms or had reason to believe that they'd been in contact with someone else who did.

The illness would also need to cost you money (known as "damages"). Many people who are infected with the coronavirus have mild symptoms and don't require hospitalization or treatment. If someone's infection doesn't cost them money, they wouldn't have a claim for damages. This could be either costs related to medical treatment or lost wages for time out of work related to the illness.

If I skip my medical appointments because of coronavirus, how will it impact my personal injury claim?

When you file a personal injury claim, you'll have to prove that you were injured and support your request for damages with evidence. Medical records are one of the most common forms of evidence. If you skip medical appointments, you won't have as much evidence to support your claim.

Additionally, plaintiffs have a duty to mitigate their damages. If you skip your medical appointments, the defendant may argue that you failed to mitigate your damages by dragging out your recovery. If the argument is successful, the court may reduce your damages accordingly.

What's more, missing appointments may give insurance adjusters, jurors, and judges the impression that you're not really as injured as you claim to be.

With that being said, it's important to recognize that many hospitals and doctor's offices are currently rescheduling non-essential surgeries, procedures, and appointments in light of the coronavirus pandemic. If you need to miss a medical appointment because it has been rescheduled (or because you feel that it's dangerous to expose yourself to potentially infected patients), tell your lawyer immediately so they can communicate with the necessary parties and help limit the damage to your claim.

Is failing to implement a pandemic contingency plan considered "negligence"?

Employers and businesses are responsible for ensuring that employees and customers are not exposed to a known threat, and for providing reasonable accommodations.

OSHA requires an employer to comply with industry-specific safety standards, along with general obligations for employers that include:

  • Keeping a workplace free from hazards
  • Recognizing hazards
  • Preventing hazards that could cause death or serious physical injury
  • Correcting or alleviating any hazard for which it's feasible to do so

OSHA doesn't offer specific guidance during a pandemic. However, it made this statement during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak:

"During a pandemic, employers should rely on the latest CDC and state or local public health assessments. While the EEOC recognizes that public health recommendations may change during a crisis and differ between states, employers are expected to make their best efforts to obtain public health advice that is contemporaneous and appropriate for their location, and to make reasonable assessments of conditions in their workplace based on this information."


OSHA also requires that an employer may not take action against an employee who refuses to be exposed to a dangerous condition, based on the standard that a reasonable person would conclude that there is a danger of death or serious injury.

Negligence is unintentional wrongful conduct that causes harm.

In the context of an employer's response to a pandemic, there could be several ways to establish negligence:

  • Medical malpractice. In this instance, a healthcare provider could be liable for breach of duty to a patient.
  • Scope of practice. A healthcare provider could be negligent for making decisions or performing taste beyond their licensed permissions.
  • Premises liability. Anyone who owns or manages property can be responsible for injuries to people that happen on the premises, whether it's employees, customers or visitors. If certain facilities are being used as care sites for ill patients, points of distribution for medicine or supplies or testing sites, those facilities can be responsible for hazardous conditions.
  • Failure to prepare. Healthcare facilities have numerous information resources to provide guidance for preparing for a medical emergency. If a facility doesn't plan appropriately according to the guidelines, stay current on the most updated information or properly train staff, it could be open to a claim for failure to plan or prepare.
  • Breach of privacy. Patient confidentiality is covered by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), and there are additional state privacy and confidentiality laws. These laws continue to apply in an emergency. Medical providers and health departments must follow protocols to provide accurate reporting to communities and school districts without violating patient confidentiality.
  • Gross negligence. This is an action or failure to act that is so reckless that it disregards the possibility for an injury or harm to occur. An act of gross negligence would not be covered under a statute that provides immunity or liability to protections to emergency responders or other professionals.

Whether an employer's failure to implement a pandemic plan constitutes negligence might depend largely on the nature of the employer's business or industry and whether it took appropriate precautions based on what was reasonable in its specific situation.

Can I sue the government for quarantining me?

Lawsuits against the government during public health emergencies are relatively common and generally take the form of civil rights challenges in response to government restrictions, such as quarantining individuals or creating containment zones. When the government imposes such restrictions, it must weigh public health concerns against individual liberties. If the government goes too far, it can be sued.

For example, in 2014, during the Ebola epidemic, a nurse who had returned from treating Ebola patients in Africa was quarantined despite not showing any symptoms of the disease. The nurse sued the government and, as part of the settlement, the government agreed to implement new quarantine rules to help ensure that quarantines only happen when medically necessary.

However, lawsuits like the one described above will likely be more difficult to prove with respect to the coronavirus. This is because, unlike Ebola, the symptoms of coronavirus are less clear and therefore the restrictions are necessarily broader.

Can I sue the government for contracting covid-19?

Historically, under the "doctrine of sovereign immunity," private citizens weren't permitted to sue the federal government or the state governments for negligence. However, the federal government (through the "Federal Tort Claims Act") and state governments (through various "Tort Claims Acts") waived this immunity for most cases.

Assuming your claim isn't barred by the Federal Tort Claims Act or your state's Tort Claims Act, you can sue the government for negligence. To do so, you'll have to establish the elements of negligence just as you would if you were suing a private citizen or business:

  • The defendant owed you a duty
  • The defendant breached the duty
  • The defendant's breach was the proximate cause of your injuries

As is the case with suing a private individual or business for infecting you with the coronavirus, the hardest element to prove when suing the government will be causation. You'll need to prove that the government's action (or inaction) was the proximate cause of your injury. This means you'll have to prove that you didn't contract the disease as a result of some other action (such as going to the store), which will be extremely difficult given how many people are infected with the coronavirus.

Despite the challenges, we're likely to see several negligence lawsuits filed against the federal and state governments, ranging from failure to provide adequate testing or safety equipment to failure to restrict travel promptly.

Keep in mind that whenever you sue the government there are strict guidelines you must follow (that don't exist when suing a private citizen), so you should talk to an experienced attorney as soon as you think you have a valid claim.

  Workers' compensation

Can I get workers' compensation benefits for contracting coronavirus at work? What if I'm a healthcare professional or first responder?

The purpose of the workers' compensation system is to provide medical treatment and benefits to people who become injured or ill at work.

In general, personal injury claims are based on negligence — the injured person must prove that the defendant's negligence caused their injury. Workers' compensation is the exception because it's a no-fault system.

An employer's workers' compensation insurance covers a work-related illness or injury whether or not it was caused by negligence. That means you might be able to recover workers' compensation benefits if you are infected by coronavirus at work, even if the employer was following all recommended protocols for containing the spread of the disease.

In most cases, however, exposure to COVID-19 is not considered to be a work-related condition unless you're a healthcare provider or first responder.

A claim related to exposure to and infection with coronavirus will likely be denied if it's "incidental" to the workplace.

If a health care or medically-based employee contracts a disease such as coronavirus at work, the biggest challenge to a workers' compensation claim will be proving that they were infected with the virus in the workplace. Since the virus is so widespread and contagious, and because many people can be infected without showing symptoms, it could be impossible for most workers to prove how they were exposed.

If someone you've been in contact with as part of your work-related duties has been diagnosed with the coronavirus, and if you are diagnosed with the illness, then you might be able to recover workers' compensation benefits for your medical expenses and lost wages while you're home from work if you meet these criteria:

  • You had an increased risk of contracting the disease because of the nature of your job (as a healthcare worker or first responder).
  • You would not have been exposed to the virus except for at your job.
  • You can identify a specific event related to your employment that resulted in your exposure to COVID-19 (for example, you treated a patient who was diagnosed with the illness).

What workers' compensation benefits can I get for contracting coronavirus at work?

Many people who are diagnosed with the coronavirus have mild symptoms that don't require hospitalization and they recover on their own at home. If there are no medical expenses, your workers' compensation claim would be based on your lost wages from being out of work.

In some states, workers' compensation benefits begin after an employee has been out of work recovering for a certain period of time. If your workplace is closed because of the coronavirus, it might be difficult to determine when your benefits would end since you might not return to work as you normally would after an illness. Although this is still new to the legal system, it would likely be when you're considered fully recovered and out of the mandatory 14-day isolation period.

What duty does my employer have to prevent the spread of coronavirus in the workplace?

Each employer is responsible for taking precautions to limit the spread of coronavirus to employees.

Actions that employers must take now in order to limit the spread of coronavirus include (but aren't limited to):

  • Requiring workers to stay home if they have any symptoms of illness.
  • Requiring workers to stay home if someone whom they've been in contact with has any symptoms of illness.
  • Thoroughly, effectively, and frequently sanitizing shared surfaces or objects according to CDC guidelines.
  • Limiting the number of people present in a space at any given time.
  • Providing personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare providers or other individuals who have a high likelihood of being in close proximity to a person with COVID-19 or symptoms of the illness.

If I skip my medical appointments because of coronavirus, how will it impact my workers' compensation case?

Workers' compensation claimants have a duty to mitigate their injuries (commonly referred to as "damages" in the legal world). This means that claimants must take all reasonable steps to keep their losses from becoming worse. When you file a workers' compensation claim, your insurer may attempt to deny your claim or reduce your benefits if it believes you failed to mitigate your damages.

One of the most common ways in which claimants fail to mitigate their damages is by missing medical appointments. When this happens, the insurer often argues that by missing appointments, the claimant extended their recovery period. In other words, the injured worker would have healed faster and suffered less had they kept their medical appointments and, therefore, the claimant shouldn't receive benefits for the increased recovery time.

For this reason, you generally want to avoid missing medical appointments. However, it's also important to recognize that many hospitals and doctor's offices are rescheduling non-essential surgeries, procedures, and appointments. If you need to miss a medical appointment because it has been rescheduled (or because you don't feel comfortable exposing yourself to potentially infected patients), tell your workers' compensation insurer or your attorney what's going on.

In all likelihood, you won't be penalized for missing an appointment during this time, but it's best to be cautious and keep all relevant parties informed.

Can my employer force me to come to work?

The requirements and guidelines for the coronavirus are changing every day and vary based on your location.

At this time, employers have discretion as to whether they can require an employee to report to work, unless the employee is in a quarantine or self-isolation condition. If your method of transportation shuts down or you have children at home who require care, you should talk with your employer about options for working from home, using paid time off, or other available resources.

Can my employer ask me if I have the coronavirus or force me to get tested?

If you are showing symptoms of flu-like illness or those associated with COVID-19, your employer is permitted to ask you to seek medical attention and get tested. The CDC has said that an employee who has symptoms of flu-like illnesses should leave the workplace immediately.

COVID-19 still has a lot of unanswered questions because it's so new. During the H1N1 pandemic, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) declared that asking a worker to go home wouldn't violate disability guidelines if the symptoms were similar to H1N1 or seasonal flu. It would likely be the same for coronavirus.

The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits an employer from asking about an employee's medical status. The EEOC considers taking an employee's temperature to be a "medical exam" under this rule.

However, although the ADA prohibits an employer from requiring a medical exam or making a disability-related inquiry, it can generally be permitted under 2 conditions:

  1. If the exam or inquiry is job-related and has a business necessity, or
  2. The employer reasonably believes that the employee's health poses a "direct threat" to any other person's health or safety.

The EEOC also defers to CDC guidelines as the pandemic evolves and might allow taking an employee's temperature at work if it becomes recommended by the CDC.

How can I file a covid-19 workers' compensation claim?

If you contracted COVID-19 at work, you might be able to receive workers' compensation benefits. In order to find out, you'll first have to file a workers' compensation claim.

The specific steps that you must follow depend on the state in which you're filing your claim. You can read more about the general steps in our Workers' Compensation Guide, and you can find your specific state guide on our Accident and Personal Injury Law Guides by State page.

Can I get workers' compensation under FECA if I'm a federal worker?

The Federal Employees Compensation Act (FECA) is the federal law that provides benefits to federal employees who have sustained work-related injuries or diseases.

A federal employee who contracts COVID-19 can receive workers' compensation under FECA if they are able to:

  • Provide a medical report from a qualified physician reflecting a positive test for COVID-19, and
  • Establish that they contracted COVID-19 while performing a work duty.

Can an employee receive paid leave under the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) if they're afraid of contracting COVID-19 at work?

The FFCRA is an Act of congress intended to reduce the workplace impact of COVID-19 by allowing some employees (those who have been on the job for at least 30 days and work for employers with fewer than 500 employees) to receive paid leave in certain situations related to COVID-19.

Unfortunately, fear of being exposed to COVID-19 is NOT a qualifying reason for paid leave under the FFCRA.

The 6 qualifying reasons include:

  1. The employee is subject to a federal, state, or local quarantine or isolation order
  2. The employee has received advice from a health care provider to self-quarantine due to concerns related to COVID-19
  3. The employee is experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and seeking a medical diagnosis
  4. The employee is caring for an individual subject to a government order or medically advised self-quarantine
  5. The employee is caring for a child whose school or place of care is closed (so long as alternative childcare is also unavailable)
  6. The employee is experiencing any other "substantially similar" condition to those listed above

Keep in mind that the FFCRA is a federal Act. Your state can't prohibit you from receiving paid leave in the situations listed in the FFCRA, but it can pass a law requiring your employer to provide paid leave in additional situations.

To learn more about your rights under the FFCRA, visit the United States Department of Labor's Employee Paid Leave Rights webpage.

  Medical negligence

Can I sue a doctor or hospital for misdiagnosis of coronavirus?

Medical malpractice occurs when a patient is harmed because a healthcare professional deviates from the accepted standard of care. One of the most common acts that results in a medical malpractice claim is the misdiagnosis of an illness. A misdiagnosis is when a doctor or other healthcare professional examines a patient but reaches the wrong conclusion about the plaintiff's condition.

For example, if a man comes into the doctor's office complaining of chest pain and the doctor diagnoses the ailment as indigestion when, in fact, the pain is an early symptom of a heart attack, then this is a case of misdiagnosis.

In order to establish a medical malpractice claim based on misdiagnosis, you must prove the following 2 elements:

  1. The healthcare professional failed to exercise the degree of care and skill expected of a reasonable healthcare professional in the profession, and
  2. Such failure was the proximate cause of your injury.

In other words, just because a healthcare professional misdiagnoses your illness doesn't mean they've committed malpractice. The reality is that some illnesses are tricky to diagnose. If the mistake was one that a reasonable healthcare professional would make, there's no malpractice. As a result, the focus of most medical malpractice cases is on what a reasonable healthcare professional would have done in a specific set of circumstances.

One of the reasons the novel coronavirus is so difficult to contain is that it's difficult to diagnose. The symptoms of COVID-19, which include fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath, are similar to the symptoms of other respiratory diseases that commonly circulate in the United States — namely, the common cold and flu. What's more, the COVID-19 pandemic is a rapidly evolving situation, so what is known about the disease is constantly changing.

As a result, it will be difficult to establish a medical negligence claim for the misdiagnosis of the coronavirus. With that being said, every case has a different set of facts and you should talk to an experienced medical malpractice attorney about your specific situation.

Can I sue a nursing home, hospital or doctor if my loved one died of coronavirus?

If your loved one contracted the coronavirus in a nursing home or hospital and died as a result, you might be able to sue the nursing home or hospital under the theory of negligence.

To establish a negligence claim, you'll first have to prove that:

  • The nursing home or hospital owed your loved one a duty,
  • The nursing home or hospital breached the duty, and
  • The breach was the proximate cause of your loved one's death.

All nursing homes and hospitals owe their patients a duty of care. As a result, the focus of your lawsuit will be on whether the nursing home or hospital breached this duty by failing to take reasonable steps to prevent the spread of the virus.

For example, if a nursing home resident showed symptoms of the novel coronavirus, and the nursing home staff didn't keep them away from the other residents, the nursing home probably breached their duty of care.

Once you establish that the nursing home or hospital breached their duty of care, you'll then need to establish that the breach caused your loved one's death. In other words, you'll need to prove that your loved one contracted the virus as a result of the nursing home or hospital's actions (or inaction) and not as a result of some other cause (such as a visit from a relative who had the coronavirus).

There is a long history in the United States of personal injury lawsuits based on infectious diseases. Most recently, a patient sued the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center for allowing a tuberculosis-infected nurse to continue working with patients.

  Premises liability

Can I sue a cruise line or grocery store for allowing me to contract coronavirus?

While there's no legal precedent yet (i.e. no rulings have been made) against a company like a cruise line or retail store for negligently exposing customers to the coronavirus, it's likely only a matter of time. If fact, civil lawsuits have already been filed against Princess Cruise Lines by passengers who claim the company knew that a passenger they let onboard was in bad condition and had symptoms that pointed to coronavirus, yet the company allowed thousands more to board and put their health at risk.

If and when such claims arise, it will likely be debated whether the company took reasonable measures to protect customers, visitors or passengers from the disease. The court will need to determine whether the actions taken were reasonable under the circumstances and based on health organizations' recommendations at the time.

Can I sue Uber or Lyft if a driver gave me coronavirus?

If you contract the novel coronavirus from a rideshare driver, you have 2 potential legal courses of action.

First, you could sue the rideshare driver for negligence. The theory behind this claim would be that the rideshare driver owed you a duty of reasonable care, and the rideshare driver breached that duty by giving you a ride while they were infected with the coronavirus.

In such a lawsuit, you face 2 significant hurdles:

  1. You need to prove that the rideshare driver knew or should have known they were infected with the coronavirus, and
  2. You need to prove that you were infected by the driver and not some other person.

Second, if you live in a state that mandates paid sick leave and that also reclassifies contract workers as employees, you might be able to sue the rideshare company if the company failed to pay the mandated sick leave and the infected rideshare driver continued to work because of this failure. In California, for instance, 2 such lawsuits have already been filed.

  General legal information

Can a lawyer handle my case remotely?

As the novel coronavirus spreads, many lawyers have been forced to shut down their offices and work from home. Fortunately, modern technology allows many lawyers to continue handling cases remotely. For example:

  • Documents can be sent, reviewed, and signed through a secure email service
  • Depositions can be conducted via video conference
  • Hearings can be conducted over the phone
  • Claims and settlements can be negotiated over the phone

As lawyers transition to remote work during this time, it's reasonable to expect that things might take a little longer than normal. What's more, certain legal proceedings (such as jury trials) must take place in-person and therefore may be postponed.

How will coronavirus affect the statute of limitations?

A statute of limitations is a law that sets the maximum amount of time you have to file a lawsuit. If you fail to file your lawsuit within the statute of limitations, your case will be dismissed and you won't be able to recover any damages.

Though the statute of limitations for most personal injury cases ranges from 2-4 years (depending on the state where the lawsuit is filed), some personal injury claims, such as those brought against the government, must be filed within 90 days of the accident giving rise to the claim.

So what happens if you can't file your lawsuit on time because of the coronavirus?

The answer depends on the state where you plan to file your lawsuit. Some states, such as Texas have issued emergency orders that allow courts to extend statute of limitations. However, most states have not yet addressed the issue.

If you're concerned about filing your lawsuit before the deadline expires, use our free online directory to contact an attorney in your area right away.

Ask a legal expert

Have more questions about how coronavirus will impact your injury case? Want to find out whether you can sue a business or individual for exposure? Ask our attorney advisory board:

R. Mack Babcock

Colorado personal injury and workers' comp attorney

Benjamin Gerber

Georgia workers' compensation attorney

George Lorenzo

Florida personal injury attorney

Robert E. Wisniewski

Arizona workers' compensation attorney

Matthew J. Murphy

Montana personal injury and workers' compensation attorney

Resources for law students

Whether you were planning to start law school soon or are currently enrolled, you probably have a lot of questions right now about your future. If your classes have been suspended, we invite you to continue your education by visiting our For Students page for helpful tips, tools and tricks for ensuring success in your studies and beyond.

Here's are a few articles you might find useful:

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COVID-19 in the news: civil lawsuits and injury claims

Here at Enjuris, we're continually scouring the internet to bring you this list of curated news stories from all around the world about coronavirus lawsuits, claims and injuries.

Florida’s new law protects businesses from being sued if an employee is infected with COVID-19. Here’s what you should know:

Two officials at the Holyoke Soldiers’ Home were indicted on charges of criminal neglect for their role in the spread of a COVID-19 outbreak that killed 76 residents.
Source: The New York Times

On September 14, 2020, Ohio enacted a law that will shield businesses, health care providers, and schools from civil liability for injuries related to COVID-19 so long as the injuries are not the result of reckless or intentional misconduct. Ohio joins more than a dozen states with similar legislation already in place.
Source: Dayton Daily News

New York Rolls Back Immunity Law that Protected Hospitals and Nursing Homes

New York passed a law rolling back an immunity law that protected hospitals and nursing homes from lawsuits during the COVID-19 pandemic. The new law means that nursing homes and hospitals will no longer have immunity for care not related to COVID-19.
Source: US News

Federal Eviction Moratorium Set to Expire

On March 27th, the U.S. government passed the CARES Act, which placed a moratorium on evicting renters who live in federally-backed housing. The moratorium is set to expire on July 25th, at which point millions of Americans will face the possibility of eviction.
Source: Forbes Magazine

Several States Have Enacted Laws Protecting Businesses from Coronavirus-Related Lawsuits

Several states, including Iowa, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, and Utah, have recently passed legislation that will shield most businesses from certain lawsuits based on COVID-19 exposures or infections. A number of other states are currently considering similar bills.
Source: American Tort Reform Association

FDA Advises Consumers Not to Use 9 Toxic Hand Sanitizers

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a statement warning Americans to avoid 9 hand sanitizers due to the presence of methanol, which can result in nausea, blurred vision, permanent blindness, seizures, permanent damage to the nervous system and even death. The hand sanitizers are manufactured in Mexico and include: All-Clean Hand Sanitizer, Esk Biochem Hand Sanitizer, Lavar 70 Gel Hand Sanitizer, The Good Gel Antibacterial Gel Hand Sanitizer, Saniderm Advanced Hand Sanitizer, and several CleanCare hand sanitizers.
Source:; Published: June 19, 2020

Zoom Call Eviction Hearings: ‘They’ll Throw Everything I Have Out On The Street’

In many regions, courts are holding remote hearings for eviction proceedings because in-person court is closed due to COVID-19. But some evictions are moving forward because a tenant can’t dial into a video call or there are technology glitches that prevent them from attending a video hearing. As a result, tenants are being evicted for failure to appear at a hearing.
Source: NPR; Published: June 19, 2020

Workers Sue McDonald’s over COVID-19 Outbreak

McDonald’s employees in California are suing the fast food restaurant for an alleged failure to create a safe work environment. The workers allege that they were provided with doggie diapers and coffee filters to use as face coverings and that they were forced to work even though they showed symptoms of COVID-19.
Source: San Francisco Chronicle; Published: June 17, 2020

Amazon Workers Say NY Warehouse Unsafe Amid COVID-19

A lawsuit filed in New York federal court claims that Amazon failed to follow health guidelines and regulations related to the coronavirus, which led to the death and illness of warehouse workers at its Staten Island fulfillment center. The plaintiffs aren’t claiming monetary damages; instead, they’re seeking an order to require Amazon to comply with public health guidance with respect to protecting employees from COVID-19 exposure.
Source: NBC News; Published: June 3, 2020

Lawsuit Filed Against California Nursing Home that Refused to Let Staff Wear Protective Equipment

The family of a 77-year-old man who died of COVID-19 after he contracted the virus in a Glendale, California nursing home has filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the nursing home. The lawsuit alleges that the home prohibited staff members from wearing masks and gloves, locked up protective equipment that the local fire department delivered, and concealed the fact that a staff member had been exposed to the virus.
Source: Los Angeles Times; Published: May 22, 2020

Illinois Nursing Home Sued Over Its Handling of the COVID-19 Outbreak

In Illinois, 2 wrongful death lawsuits have been filed against a nursing home in the aftermath of a COVID-19 outbreak that caused more than 20 deaths among residents and staff. The lawsuits allege that the nursing home ignored directives from the state to help control the spread of COVID-19 and failed to isolate symptomatic residents from asymptomatic residents.
Source: Chicago Tribune; Published: May 19, 2020

Boston University Students Sue the School for Tuition Refunds after School Switches to Online Classes in Response to COVID-19

Two Boston University students filed separate lawsuits against the school for tuition refunds. The lawsuits both allege that the school’s move to online classes, a move that was made in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, has deprived the students of the benefits of an on-campus education.
Source: Boston Public Radio (WBUR); Published: May 1, 2020

New York Immunity Law Protects Nursing Homes from Coronavirus-Related Lawsuits

In New York, more than 5,000 nursing home residents have died of COVID-19. Unfortunately, surviving family members may not have any legal recourse. A recently passed law shields nursing homes from coronavirus-related lawsuits in most cases.
Source: The New York Times; Published: May 13, 2020

Family of Meat Pack Worker Who Died of COVID-19 Sues JBS

The family of a deceased JBS meatpacking worker filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the meatpacking company in Pennsylvania state court. The lawsuit alleges that JBS ignored guidance from the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and promoted the spread of the novel coronavirus by forcing employees to work in close proximity to others without adequate protective equipment.
Source: The Philadelphia Inquirer; Published: May 7, 2020

California Universities Sued Over COVID-19 Refunds

The family of an elderly man who died of COVID-19 following a cruise filed a wrongful death suit against the cruise line. The lawsuit alleges that, despite knowing several passengers had COVID-19 symptoms, Carnival waited 2 weeks to notify other passengers and to enact sanitary precautions.
Source: CBS News Los Angeles; Published: May 4, 2020

California Universities Sued Over COVID-19 Refunds

Students at the University of California and California State University filed class-action lawsuits against both universities for refusing to reimburse student fees that went toward services the students are no longer receiving as a result of the pandemic, such as boarding and the use of health facilities. Students in other universities are likely to follow suit.
Source: Los Angeles Times; Published: April 28, 2020

Even With COVID-19 Cases, Suing Cruise Lines is ‘Extraordinarily Difficult'

When the novel coronavirus outbreak began, cruise ships were still at sea and the virus started to spread among passengers. Family members have since filed lawsuits against cruise lines for the wrongful deaths of passengers who became infected while onboard, claiming that the cruise line didn't adequately warn passengers of the risk or take proper precautions to prevent the spread of the virus. However, experts say it will be difficult to be successful in these lawsuits against cruise lines.
Source: NPR; Published: April 22, 2020

No, Your Landlord Can't Evict You For Having the Coronavirus

The federal Fair Housing Act says that a landlord can't evict a person because of a disability or medical condition, and that includes COVID-19. If you have a condominium or homeowners association, those rules can't override the FHA law. Although a landlord has a responsibility to prohibit a tenant from posing a "direct threat" to any other tenant, they also have a duty to take precautions to keep everyone safe without evicting anyone.
Source: HuffPost; Published: April 14, 2020

MTA offers massive increase in worker family death benefits

In New York, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) reached an agreement with the Transport Workers Union of America and the Transport Workers Union Local 100 to pay $500,000 to the families of union workers who died after becoming infected by COVID-19. The MTA is working on similar agreements with other unions. Source: ABC7 New York; Published: April 14, 2020

Concert venues face legal questions amid pandemic

As officials begin to ease restrictions for avoiding the spread of the coronavirus, legal questions arise about how venue facility owners and operators can protect employees and patrons once large-scale entertainment events resume. Some have suggested safeguards like taking people's temperatures before they enter and enacting laws that prohibit people who have tested positive for coronavirus from attending shows and public events. However, liability for spreading the virus within an entertainment venue has not yet been established. Source: Times Union; Published: April 10, 2020

Liability protections for health care professionals during COVID-19

A number of states have enacted emergency executive orders and legislation shielding health care providers who treat patients that have the novel coronavirus from civil liability in the absence of reckless conduct or gross negligence. The bottom line: In states that choose to provide liability protections, it will be more difficult for patients to establish medical malpractice claims with respect to treatment related to COVID-19. Source: American Medical Association; Published: April 8, 2020

Walmart hit with wrongful death lawsuit after employee dies of COVID-19

In Illinois, the relative of a Walmart employee who died from COVID-19 filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the retail store, alleging that the store didn't do enough to protect employees from the virus. Among other things, the lawsuit states that the store failed to enforce social distancing guidelines and failed to provide protective equipment to employees. Source: ABC News; Published: April 8, 2020

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