Tennessee Head Injuries and Legal Claims

Head and brain injury lawsuits

Can you recover damages following a head or brain injury?

Head and brain injuries can require life-long care. Find out what legal options exist for head injury victims in the Volunteer State.
Jump to section


Your head contains your major sensory organs, the most important of which is your brain. Minor bumps and bruises generally heal on their own, but more serious injuries may require life-long care.

If you sustained a head injury at work or as a result of someone else’s negligent or intentional act, you may be able to recover damages.

Let’s take a look at head injuries and head injury legal claims in Tennessee.

What is a head injury?

The term “head injury” is broadly used to describe a host of injuries that occur to the scalp, skull, brain, and underlying tissue and blood vessels in the head.

Common examples of head injuries

Some of the most common head injuries include:

  • Concussions. A concussion is an injury to the head that may cause instant loss of awareness for a few minutes or several hours.
  • Skull fractures. A skull fracture is a break in the skull bone. There are different types of skull fractures depending on where the break occurs.
  • Intracranial hematomas. An intracranial hematoma occurs when blood clots develop in or around the brain. There are several types of intracranial hematomas depending on their location in the brain. These can range from mild to life-threatening.
  • Traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The term “traumatic brain injury” or “TBI” is used to describe any injury that causes a disruption in the normal functioning of the brain.

Head injuries commonly result from:

Real Life Example: The child of Kelly Wilson suffered a TBI at Blanchfield Army Community Hospital in Tennessee when he was deprived of oxygen during labor. A federal judge found that the TBI could have been avoided if the boy had been delivered by cesarean section earlier during labor. The court awarded the boy $15 million in damages.

Traumatic brain injury statistics

Though statistics are not well kept for certain brain injuries, several health organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Tennessee Department of Health, maintain TBI statistics.

Traumatic brain injury statistics

Here are some alarming statistics from the Tennessee Department of Health:

  • Roughly 3 million new TBIs occur each year in the United States
  • Every year approximately 25,000 Tennesseans sustain a TBI
  • Roughly 5 out of every 10 concussions (a mild form of TBI) go unreported or undetected
  • Males are twice as likely as females to suffer a TBI
  • The 3 leading causes of TBI in Tennessee are falls, car accidents, and violent attacks

How do you know if you suffered a serious brain injury?

It’s not always clear whether you suffered a serious brain injury. The symptoms can be subtle and may not appear right away.

Degree of injury Physical symptoms Sensory symptoms Cognitive symptoms
Mild head injury Loss of consciousness for a few seconds to a few minutes, state of being dazed, confused or disoriented, headache, nausea or vomiting, fatigue or drowsiness, problems with speech, difficulty sleeping, sleeping more than usual, dizziness or loss of balance Blurred vision, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, changes in the ability to smell, sensitivity to light or sound Memory or concentration problems, mood changes or mood swings, feeling depressed or anxious
Moderate to serious head injury Loss of consciousness from several minutes to hours, persistent headache or headache that worsens, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, clear fluids draining from the nose or ears, inability to awaken from sleep, weakness or numbness in fingers and toes, loss of coordination Blurred vision, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, changes in the ability to smell, sensitivity to light or sound Profound confusion, agitation, slurred speech, coma and other disorders of consciousness

Source: The Mayo Clinic

Because children can’t always describe their symptoms, it can be particularly difficult to tell if your child has suffered a serious head injury. Here are some things to look for:

  • Changes in eating or nursing habits
  • Unusual irritability
  • Persistent crying and inability to be consoled
  • Changes in their ability to pay attention (loss of focus)
  • Changes in sleep habits
  • Seizures
  • Sad or depressed mood
  • Drowsiness
  • Loss of interest in favorite toys or activities

Can you recover damages for a head injury?

There are 3 scenarios in which you’re likely to recover damages for a head injury:

  1. Your head injury occurred at work
  2. Your head injury was the result of someone else’s negligence
  3. Your head injury was the result of someone else’s intentional act

Let’s take a look at all 3 possibilities:

Head injuries that occur at work

Facing factsAccording to the National Safety Council, someone is injured every 7 seconds at work. What’s more, 20% of these injuries result in TBI.

Common causes of work-related head injuries include:

  • Falls on slippery, crowded, or unstable surfaces
  • Fall from unsafely positioned ladders
  • Being hit by a moving object
  • Bumping against a fixed object
  • Vehicle crashes

Fortunately, workers’ compensation provides financial benefits to employees who are injured on the job. In Tennessee, every employer with 5 or more employees (or at least 1 employee in the construction industry) is required by law to carry workers’ compensation insurance.

Workers’ compensation covers head injuries so long as the head injury wasn’t self-inflicted and it occurred when the employee was performing a work task.

Enjuris tip: Learn more about workers’ compensation in Tennessee, including how to file a claim and what benefits are available.

Head injuries caused by negligence

If your head injury was caused by another person’s carelessness, you may be able to recover damages by filing a personal injury lawsuit based on negligence.

In Tennessee, you must prove 3 elements to successfully establish a negligence claim:

  1. The defendant owed you a duty of care,
  2. The defendant breached the duty of care (in most cases this means the defendant failed to act as a reasonable person would have acted under the circumstances), and
  3. Your injury was caused by the defendant’s breach.
Real Life Example: On August 15, 2019, a Union County High School student was tackled during football practice and sustained a concussion. The student complained of headaches and the complaints were brought to the attention of the football coach. The football coach failed to notify healthcare professionals and instead ordered the student to continue practicing.

Shortly thereafter, the student suffered a permanent head injury.

A lawsuit was filed against the Union County High School on August 14, 2020, demanding $6 million in compensatory damages and $3 million in punitive damages.

Head injuries caused by an intentional act

Intentional torts arise when someone harms another person on purpose. The most common intentional tort that may result in a head injury is a battery.

Real Life Example: Lorenzo Molina, a trumpet player for the Grammy-winning band The Mavericks was punched repeatedly in a sports bar in Franklin, Tennessee, for allegedly speaking Spanish to a friend. Though the suspect remains at large, the suspect will likely be sued for civil battery if caught.

Just like negligence, you can file a personal injury lawsuit against a defendant to recover damages for an intentional tort.

Enjuris tip: A defendant who commits a battery may be charged criminally, but the criminal proceeding is separate from any civil proceeding. As a result, you can file a civil lawsuit against the defendant even if the defendant obtains a not-guilty verdict in a criminal action.

What damages can be recovered after a head injury in Tennessee?

The plaintiff in a head injury case in Tennessee can recover both economic and non-economic damages:

Economic damages include:

  • Medical expenses. Tennessee allows plaintiffs to recover past medical expenses (the medical expenses incurred at the time the lawsuit was filed) and future medical expenses (the medical expenses related to the accident that the plaintiff reasonably expects to incur over the course of their life).
  • Lost income. Lost income includes the income the plaintiff missed out on (or will miss out on) because they were recovering from the accident.
  • Property damage. The plaintiff is entitled to recover the costs associated with fixing or replacing any property damaged in the accident.

Non-economic damages include:

  • Pain and suffering. Physical pain is subjective and difficult to prove. As a result, insurance companies, judges, and juries have to rely on a number of factors when attempting to determine the value of pain and suffering. These factors include the type of injury, the type of medication prescribed, the length of recovery, and the permanence of the injury.
  • Emotional distress. Accidents don’t just cause physical pain, they almost always take some sort of emotional toll. Plaintiffs can recover damages for this emotional toll.
Enjuris tip: Learn more about the value of your personal injury claim in Tennessee.

Tennessee head injury resources

Head injuries can result in dramatic changes in personality and behavior. On top of these changes, head injury victims may be dealing with medical appointments and legal proceedings. Having proper support during the recovery process is critical.

Here are some organizations that can help:

  • The Tennessee Department of Health TBI Family Support Program is funded by the state and provides services to those with TBI, including respite care, daycare, home modifications, equipment supplies, personal assistance, transportation, homemaker services, housing costs, health-related needs, nursing and counseling.
  • The Brain Injury Association of Tennessee provides injury prevention, education, and advocacy to brain injury survivors and their families. 
  • Epic Yoga in Brentwood has partnered with the Love Your Brain Foundation to help those with TBI through yoga, meditation, and community discussion.
  • The Family Caregiver Alliance is a national organization that provides services to family caregivers of adults with physical and cognitive impairments.

Ready to contact an attorney about your head injury? Use our free online directory.


Free personal injury guides for download to print or save. View all downloads.

Tell your story:
Tell your story - What would you want others to know? Tell us what happened in your accident, and how life has changed for you.

Find an attorney:
Search our directory for personal injury law firms.
See our guide Choosing a personal injury attorney.